The Joy of Museums

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1824 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance

National Gallery Singapore - Joy of Museums - 1824 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance

The 1824 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance is also known as the Crawfurd Treaty or Final Treaty for the Cession of Singapore. This is the treaty that ceded Singapore  to the East India Company. The treaty was ratified by the British Supreme Government at Calcutta in 1825 and the British Parliament in 1826. This document allowed the British to confirm their title over Singapore.

The treaty is between the Honourable The English East India Company and their Highnesses the Sultan and Tumungong of Johore.  It was signed by the Sultan of Johore, His Highness Sultan Hussain Mahomed Shah and Tumungong of Johore, His Highness Datu Tumungong Abdul Rahman Sri Maharajah and by John Crawfurd, the British Resident of Singapore.

The treaty was made possible by the conclusion of the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, which demarcated the British and the Dutch spheres of influence in India and the Southeast Asia. The Dutch ceded Malacca and their possessions in India in return for Bencoolen and other British possessions in Sumatra.

Among the many historical and cultural objects in the National Gallery Singapore the following are highlights:

Essential Facts:

  • Title:                   1824 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance
  • Date:                   1824
  • Material:            Paper
  • Museum:           National Gallery Singapore


“A given excuse that was not asked for, implies guilt.” Singaporean / Malay Proverb



Photo Credit: By GordonMakryllos (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons