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Treaty of Friendship and Alliance

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Treaty of Friendship and Alliance

The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was concluded between the Honourable Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and their Highnesses Sultan Hussain Mahummed Shah, Sultan of Johore, and Datoo Tumungong Sri Maharajah Abdul Rahman, the Malay chief of Singapore. The Johor Sultanate was the successor of the Malacca Sultanate. Raffles entered into this treaty in 1819 granting the English East India Company the right to establish a factory or factories in Singapore.

Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles, an officer of the British East India Company in an attempt to counter Dutch domination of trade in the East. The outright cession of Singapore took place in 1824.

While in Singapore, Raffles established schools and churches. He allowed missionaries and local businesses to flourish. A European town was built to segregate the population, separated by a river. He oversaw the building of roads and a military garrison constructed for the soldiers. He oversaw the development of a thriving commercial port for the British.

Treaty of Friendship and Alliance

  • Title:                   Treaty of Friendship and Alliance
  • Between:            East India Company and the Sultanate of Johore
  • Date:                   1819
  • Material:            Paper
  • Museum:           National Gallery Singapore

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Photo Credit: JOM