Joy of Museums

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Ned Kelly’s Death Mask (State Library of Victoria)

State Library of Victoria - Joy of Museums - Ned Kelly’s Death Mask

Ned Kelly’s Death Mask

This death mask of Edward ‘Ned’ Kelly (1855–1880) was taken of a bushranger of Irish descent who became an Australian folk hero. In the 1800’s it was common practice for authorities to allow the making of a plaster ‘death mask’ of an executed criminal, to conduct a phrenological analysis. The masks were placed on public display, and Ned Kelly’s death mask was an object of significant public interest in the late 1800s.

Kelly was born in the colony of Victoria as the third of eight children to an Irish convict and an Australian mother with Irish parentage. His father died after serving a six-month prison sentence, leaving Kelly, aged 12, as the eldest male of the household. The Kelly’s were poor and saw themselves as oppressed and as victims of police persecution. Kelly was convicted of stealing horses and imprisoned for three years in 1870. After his release, he was indicted for the attempted murder of a police officer at his family’s home. After fleeing into the bush, he and his gang killed three police officers, and they were all proclaimed outlaws.

Ned Kelly in court

“Kelly in the dock” – A sketch from life, printed in The Illustrated Australian News.

Kelly and his gang gained publicity after committing armed bank robberies in Euroa and Jerilderie, and after murdering a friend turned police informer. In a manifesto letter, Kelly denouncing the police, the government, and the British Empire and set down his account of the events leading up to him becoming an outlaw. Demanding justice for his family and the rural poor, he threatened those who defied him, and he ended with the words:

“I am a widow’s son, outlawed, and my orders must be obeyed.”

Pursued by police, Kelly and his gang, dressed in self-made suits of metal armor and their bushranger careers, ended in a final deadly confrontation with the police at Glenrowan, Victoria, in 1880. All were killed except Kelly, who was wounded and captured. Despite thousands of supporters attending rallies and signing a petition for his reprieve, Kelly was convicted and sentenced to death by hanging. Kelly was executed by hanging at the Old Melbourne Gaol, and his last words are famously reported to have been:

“such is life.”

Ned Kelly remains a cultural icon, inspiring countless works in the arts, and is the subject of more biographies than any other Australian.


 Ned Kelly’s armor, from an illustration dated 1880

Maximilian Kreitmayer (1830–1906), who made the death mask, was a medical model maker and waxworks proprietor, who arrived in Victoria in 1856 and opened an anatomical museum. Kreitmayer is believed to have shaved Kelly’s hair and beard and taken the mold of his face in the deadhouse of the Melbourne Gaol.

Ned Kelly’s Death Mask

  • Title:                Ned Kelly – Death Mask
  • Artist:              Attributed to Maximilian Kreitmayer
  • Year:                1880
  • Medium:         Caster Plaster
  • Dimensions:   28.0 x 21.5 x 18.5 cm
  • Museum:        State Library of Victoria

A Tour of the State Library of Victoria

A Tour of Museums  in Australia


” Some mistakes are too much fun to only make once.”
– Australian Proverb


Photo Credits: 1) GM 2) By Australian News and Information Bureau, Canberra (National Archives of Austrailia) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 3) By Chensiyuan (Chensiyuan) [GFDL ( or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons