Orpheus Mosaic from Miletus
This mosaic floor is called the Orpheus Mosaic and was formerly part of a dining room of a Roman private house in Miletus, in Asia Minor. Orpheus mosaics are found throughout the Roman Empire, generally in large Roman villas.
Orpheus was a popular subject in classical art and was also used in Early Christian art as a symbol for Christ. Titles such as “Orpheus Taming the Beasts” are used to describe these mosaics. Usually, the scene occupies the same space, but sometimes as in this example, Orpheus and the animals are each in compartments separated by borders with geometrical decoration.
This mosaic depicts Orpheus seated on a rock and playing a lyre or cithara. He is wearing a Phrygian cap, sitting in a natural setting, with a raven and fox pacified by the mythical Orpheus’ playing the lyre. The fox is considered Orpheus’s special animal and was placed beside him. Other animals, soothed by the magical effect of the music, are represented in square and rectangular fields grouped around the image of Orpheus.
In this significant example, animal mosaics surround him on the top half of the floor, and the main square is surrounded and decorated in simple geometrical patterns. In contrast with this state of peace, the bottom half of the mosaic depicts hunting scenes. The winged cupids are armed with spears pursue wild animals, which in turn chase their prey.
This example exemplifies the standard depiction in Roman mosaic scenes from the Roman town of Miletus. An example of the usual Orpheus composition with animals in the 6th-century Gaza synagogue is identified as David by an inscription in Hebrew. Another adaptation is a Christian mosaic of Adam giving names to the animals in a church of around 500 in Apamea, Syria. Some of the mosaics seem to relate to the somewhat elusive philosophical or religious doctrines of Orphism.
In Byzantine mosaic large scenes with animals tend to be hunting scenes. These were drawn from the favorite hunting displays in the amphitheaters, where a variety of exotic beasts were released to fight and be killed. This Pergamon Museum mosaic from a house in Miletus combines both the hunting scene and an Orpheus with animals in its two parts.
In Roman Britain, Orpheus’ depictions are unique in that the animals are arranged parading in a circle around him. The animal’s feet face outwards, so that most appear the right way up, from whichever angle the ring is viewed. There are two other circular Orpheus mosaics in Volubilis in present-day Morocco, and Mérida in Spain, but the compositions are different.
Orpheus was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The core stories about him are centered on his ability to charm living things and even stones with his music.
As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture, including poetry, film, opera, music, and painting.
For the Greeks, Orpheus was a founder and prophet of the so-called “Orphic” mysteries. He was credited with the composition of the Orphic Hymns and the Orphic Argonautica. Shrines containing purported relics of Orpheus were regarded as oracles.
- How many of us wish we could charm and pacify animals?
Orpheus Mosaic from Miletus
- Name: Orpheus Mosaic from Miletus
- Date: Late 2nd century AD
- Location: Miletus, Turkey
- Type: Mosaic
- Material: Stone and glass
- Dimensions: w6.3 x h7.8 cm
- Museum: Pergamon Museum
Explore the Pergamon Museum
- The Pergamon Altar
- Ishtar Gate
- The Market Gate of Miletus
- Tile – Building Ceramic – Iran 13th – 14th Century
- Lion Hunting Scene – 750 BC
- Islamic Astrolabe
- Islamic Prayer Niche
- Victory Stele of Esarhaddon
- Desert Place of Mshatta Facade
- Temple of Ashur Water Basin
- Orpheus Mosaic from Miletus
- Lion Hunt Relief from Nimrud
- Masterpieces of The Pergamon Museum
“That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history
is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.”
– Aldous Huxley
Photo Credit: 1) JOM 2) Richard Mortel from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)]; Sources: Museum material and Wikipedia