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Virtual Tours of Museums, Art Galleries, and Historic Sites

Kleobis and Biton (The ‘Twins’ of Argos)

Kleobis and Biton - Delphi Archaeological Museum by Joy of Museums - 4
Kleobis and Biton (The ‘Twins’ of Argos)

This pair of identical marble Kouri is the work of an archaic workshop of Argos from 580 BC. These sculptures are over life-size and are the oldest monumental votive offering recovered at Delphi.

After they were discovered, they were identified as the famous brothers from Argos, Cleobis, and Biton. Recently scholars argue that the two Archaic Greek Kouroi may be the half-twin brothers in Greek mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.

An inscription at the base identifies Polymedes of Argos as the sculptor, a Greek sculptor of the Archaic Period (6th century BC). The statues are in a typical Peloponnesian style, massive and muscular with the left foot stepping forward, their hands are bent at the elbows, touching the thighs, and the hands closed in fists.

The hair is curly and hangs on the front of the shoulders. Their eyes are large and almond-shaped with high eyebrows, and they bear the typical Archaic smile.

Kleobis and Biton - Delphi Archaeological Museum

Kleobis and Biton

Kleobis and Biton are brothers from Argos whose story was told in Herodotus Histories, where Solon is asked about the happiest person in the world. In response, Solon, an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and the poet, tells the story of two brothers who took their mother to a festival for the goddess Hera to be held in town.

When their mother’s oxen could not be found, the brothers yoked themselves to their mother’s cart and drove her many miles to the temple.

Arriving at the festival, the mother prayed for Hera to grant a gift upon her sons for their devotion. The goddess granted her wish. Kleobis and Biton fell asleep in the temple and never woke up. This was the gift Hera bestowed on the brothers. To allow them to die in their sleep.

To honor the two brothers, the people of Delphi dedicated statues of them to the temple of Apollo, as funeral memorials.

Solon’s advice has been interpreted as that “the uncertainties of life mean that no one can be completely happy,” and he reinforced the Greek cultural view, which valued a “beautiful death.”

Kleobis and Biton - Delphi Archaeological Museum by Joy of Museums - 3

Dioscuri

The Dioscuri were half-twin brothers in Greek mythology. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors. They were also associated with horsemanship. The idea developed that they rode the ‘white horses’ of foam that is formed by curling ocean waves. The mythology of the brothers is also found in Roman mythology, where they are called Castor and Pollux.

Kouros

A kouros (plural kouroi) is the term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths. In Ancient Greek kouros means “youth, boy, especially of noble rank.” Such statues are found across the Greek-speaking world. The female sculptural counterpart of the kouros is the Kore.

Kleobis and Biton - Delphi Archaeological Museum by Joy of Museums - 2

Kleobis and Biton (The ‘Twins’ of Argos)

  • Title:            Kleobis and Biton (The ‘Twins’ of Argos)
  • Artist:          Polymedes
  • Date:            580 BC
  • Find site:       Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi
  • Material:       Parian Marble
  • Dimensions: H 1.97 m
  • Museums:     Delphi Archaeological Museum

A Tour of the Delphi Archaeological Museum

Reflections

  • Do these statues remind you of Egyptian sculptures more than Greek?
  • Ancient Greek sculpture started off imitating Egyptian statues. But the Greeks then innovated and continued till they perfected the art with bronze. See Charioteer of Delphi

A Tour of Greek Museums and Historic Sites

Museums in Athens

Athens Historical Sites

Thessaloniki Museums

Thessaloniki Historical Sites

Delphi Museums and Historical Sites

Delos Museums and Historical Sites

Santorini Museums

  • Museum of Prehistoric Thera
  • Archaeological Museum of Thera
  • Maritime Museum, Santorini

Thera Historical Site

Olympia Museums and Historical Sites

Corinth Museums and Historical Site

Mycenae Museum and Historic Site

Epidaurus Museum & Historic Site

Heraklion, Crete Museum & Historic Site

Meteora Historic Site 

Milos Museum & Historic Site

  • Milos Historical Sites
  • Milos Museum

Mystras Historic Site

Pella Museum & Historic Site

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“Love of money and nothing else will ruin Sparta.”
– Oracle of Delphi

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Photo Credit: JOM

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