“The Third of May 1808” by Francisco Goya depicts the early hours of the morning following the uprising, from the previous day, by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops. Goya portrays the French as a rigidly firing squad, and the citizens are represented as a disorganised group of captives held at gunpoint. Executioners and victims face each other in confined space. The Spanish uprising had provoked a harsh repression by the French forces.
Goya has contrasted the disciplined line of rifles, with the chaotic individual reactions of the citizens. A square lantern sits on the ground between the two groups throwing a dramatic light on the scene. The light highlights the fallen victims to the left where a monk is praying. The central figure is lit brightly by the lantern and is man kneeling amid the corpses of those already executed, his arms flung wide in defiance. His yellow and white clothing mirrors the colours of the lantern. His plain white shirt and sun-burnt face show he is a labourer. The firing squad, engulfed in shadow are portrayed as an integrated unit, their bayonets and headgear forming a solid line.
Goya sought to commemorate Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s armies during the occupation of 1808 and this painting plus the painting titled “The Second of May 1808” were intended as part of a more extensive series. Evidence suggests that Goya painted four large canvases to memorialise the rebellion of May 1808. The disappearance of the other two paintings may indicate official displeasure with the depiction of popular insurrection.
The painting’s emotional force made this image a groundbreaking, archetypal picture of the horrors of war. The “Third of May 1808” is a break from convention, diverging from the traditions of Christian art and traditional depictions of war. It is acknowledged as one of the first paintings of the modern era and has inspired a number of other significant paintings, including Pablo Picasso’s Guernica.
Francisco Goya is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and was a commentator and chronicler of his era. He is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
- Title: The Third of May 1808
- Spanish: El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid
- Artist: Francisco Goya
- Year: 1814
- Medium: Oil on panel
- Dimensions: 2.66 × 3.451 m (2.9 × 3.8 yd)
- Museum: Prado Museum, Museo del Prado
Artist Essential Facts:
- Name: Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes
- Birth: 1746 – Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain
- Died: 1828 (aged 82) – Bordeaux, France
- Nationality: Spanish
- Movement: Romanticism
- The Second of May 1808, 1814
- The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 х 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid
- La maja vestida, 1800–1805
- Charles IV of Spain and His Family, 1800
- The Parasol, 1777
- Sacrifice to Pan, 1771. Colección José Gudiol, Barcelona
“The habit doesn’t make the monk. – El hábito no hace al monje. “
Photo Credit: Francisco de Goya [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons