The “Alexander Sarcophagus” is a Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. The marvellous Hellenistic sculptures were created by classical Greek sculptors in the Athenian idiom during the late 4th century BC. The most significant sculptured scene is of Alexander the Great attempting to battle the Persian king, Darius III, as Darius flees the battle of Issus in 333 BC.
The Alexander Sarcophagus is one of four massive carved sarcophagi discovered during the excavations at the necropolis near Sidon, Lebanon in 1887. The Sarcophagus was probably created for a wealthy and powerful noble or governor of the region.
The sarcophagus is constructed of marble from a mountain range in Attica, Greece in the form of a Greek temple. The carvings on one side of the Sarcophagus depicts Alexander fighting the Persians at the Battle of Issus. Alexander is shown mounted, wearing a lion-skin on his head, and preparing to throw a spear at the Persian cavalry.
Alexander wearing a lion-skin on his head, throwing a spear at the Persian cavalry
The other side shows Alexander and the Macedonians hunting lions together with the Persians. The short ends, the pediment and the lid all continue the theme showing additional hunting scenes and battles.
Although this sarcophagus has no inscriptions, and the contents have been looted in antiquity, what remains is a magnificent sarcophagus with some of the finest sculptures ever discovered from the classical Greek era. The workmanship belongs to an unknown master sculptor.
- Title: Alexander Sarcophagus
- Year: 4th century BC
- Material: Pentelic marble
- Discovered: 1887
- Find Site: Sidon, Lebanon
- Museum: Istanbul Archaeology Museum, Istanbul, Turkey
“I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well.” – Alexander the Great
Photo Credits: 1) By Apasova (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 2) By Ronald Slabke (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons