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“Echo and Narcissus” by John William Waterhouse

"Echo and Narcissus" by John William Waterhouse

“Echo and Narcissus” by John William Waterhouse

“Echo and Narcissus” by John William Waterhouse depicts Narcissus, a beautiful youth who rejected all the nymphs and women who fell in love with him and instead fell in love with his reflection. The story is based on a myth from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, a Latin mythological epic. In the tale, the mountain nymph Echo falls in love with Narcissus. Narcissus, however, rejects her love. The nymph Echo, who was so upset by his rejection that she withdrew from life and wasted away until all that was left was a whisper. Her prayers were heard by the goddess Nemesis, who caused Narcissus to fall in love with his reflection.

Waterhouse shows the scene where Narcissus tired from the hunting, and the heat rests by a spring, and while drinking, “a new thirst grows inside him”, and he is “captivated by the image of the beauty he sees”. He falls deeply in love with “all the things for which he is admired.” He then wastes away with love for himself, echoing the response that Echo had earlier. He continued to look at his reflection until he died. A narcissus flower grew on the spot where he died. The pale flower is still found near river banks so that it can be reflected in the water.

The poem “Echo and Narcissus” by Ovid was written during the Augustan Age. However, both Echo and Narcissus originated from much earlier Greek mythology. The myth of Narcissus had inspired artists for at least two thousand years, even before the Roman poet Ovid featured a version in his Metamorphoses. In more recent centuries poets such as Keats and painters such as Caravaggio, Poussin, Turner, Dalí and Waterhouse have all created artworks inspired by the myth of Narcissus.


In Greek mythology, Echo was a mountain nymph who resided on Mount Cithaeron in central Greece. Zeus loved consorting with beautiful nymphs and often visited them on Earth. Eventually, Zeus’s wife, Hera, became suspicious and came down from Mt. Olympus in an attempt to catch Zeus with the nymphs. Echo, by trying to protect Zeus, endured Hera’s wrath, and Hera cursed her only to be able to speak the last words spoken to her. So when Echo met Narcissus and fell in love with him, she was unable to tell him how she felt and was forced to watch him as he fell in love with himself.


In Greek mythology, Narcissus was a hunter who was known for his beauty and who loved everything beautiful. Narcissus was proud, in that he disdained those who loved him, causing some to commit suicide to prove their unrelenting devotion to his striking beauty. Narcissus is the origin of the term narcissism, a fixation with oneself and one’s physical appearance or public perception.

John William Waterhouse

Waterhouse worked in the Pre-Raphaelite style, several decades after the breakup of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which included artists such as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt. Waterhouse embraced the Pre-Raphaelite style even though it had gone out of fashion in the British art scene, by the time he painted this painting. He painted over 200 works, mainly in the genres of classical mythology, and historical or literary subjects.


  • Echo was cursed only to speak the last words spoken to her and thus could not express her love. Does this still happen today?

Echo and Narcissus

  • Title:              Echo and Narcissus
  • Artist:            John William Waterhouse
  • Medium:       Oil on canvas
  • Date:             1882
  • Dimensions:  Height: 1,092 mm (42.99 ″); Width: 1,892 mm (74.48 ″)
  • Museum:       Walker Art Gallery

John William Waterhouse

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Man is the most intelligent of the animals – and the silliest.”
– Diogenes


Photo Credit: John William Waterhouse [Public domain]