“The Allegory of Faith” by Johannes Vermeer
“The Allegory of Faith” by Johannes Vermeer was painted about 1670 and depicts a woman in an elegant white and blue satin dress with gold trimmings. She is surrounded by iconography related to faith. She sits on a platform a step higher than the marble floor, her right foot on a terrestrial globe and her right hand on her heart as she looks up, adoringly, at a glass sphere hung from the ceiling by a blue ribbon.
Vermeer’s iconography in the painting is mostly taken from an academic book of allegorical illustrations. The book had accompanying moral themes, which had been translated into Dutch in 1644.
The book of allegorical illustrations provides many of the symbols in the painting. The symbolism includes the color of the woman’s clothing, her hand gesture, and the presence of the crushed snake and the apple. Amongst the many symbols in this painting are the following:
- The woman is dressed in white signifying light and purity;
- The blue in the women’s dress relates to heaven;
- Her hand on her breast symbolizes that the virtue rests in her heart;
- Christ is represented in the cornerstone crushing the snake, a symbol of the Devil;
- The apple, the fruit Eve gave to Adam represents original sin, which in Christian doctrine required the sacrifice of the Savior;
- The globe of the earth under the woman’s right foot symbolizes Faith as having the world under her feet;
- The woman’s pearl necklace relates to pearls as ancient symbols of virginity; and
- The sphere is a symbol of the human mind and its capacity to reflect and to believe in God.
The painting’s iconography also has Catholic symbolism influenced by Jesuit ideas. The woman’s left arm rests on the edge of a table, which holds a golden chalice, a large book, and a dark-wood crucifix. Behind the crucifix is a gilt-leather panel screen. Beneath the book is a long piece of priest’s cloth. Resting on top of the book is a crown of thorns on the far wall behind the woman, a large painting of Christ’s crucifixion. Vermeer was born and raised Protestant but converted to Catholicism on the occasion of his marriage into a Catholic family.
Allegory in Art is used to illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are understandable or striking to its viewers. The origins of Allegory can be traced at least back to Homer in his use of personifications of Terror (Deimos) and Fear (Phobos). There many Allegorical Paintings in museums including:
- Sandro Botticelli – Primavera (c. 1482)
- Albrecht Dürer – Melencolia I (1514)
- Jan Vermeer – Allegory of Painting (c. 1666)
- Jean-Léon Gérôme – Truth Coming Out of Her Well (1896)
Johannes Vermeer (1632 – 1675) was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. He was a moderately successful painter in his lifetime. However, he was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death.
There are only thirty-four paintings by Vermeer, and they are challenging to date. Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes, and most of his pictures are set in the rooms of his house in Delft. There are similar furniture and decorations in various arrangements in his domestic scenes, and his art often portrays the same people. He was not wealthy, as he left his family in debt after his death. He produced relatively few paintings compared to his contemporaries. Art historians mainly overlooked Vermeer’s works for several centuries after his death. However, his reputation has skyrocketed in the last few hundred years, and he is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work.
- Many critics do not like this Vermeer. How do you feel about it?
- Only 34 Vermeer paintings have survived. Which is your favorite?
The Allegory of Faith – Allegory of the Catholic Faith
- Title: The Allegory of Faith, also known as Allegory of the Catholic Faith
- Artist: Johannes Vermeer
- Year: 1670 –72
- Type: Oil on canvas
- Period: Dutch Golden Age
- Dimensions: Height: 114.3 cm (45 ″); Width: 88.9 cm (35 ″)
- Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art – MET
- Artist: Johannes Vermeer
- Born: 1632 – Delft, Dutch Republic
- Died: 1675 (aged 43) -Delft, Dutch Republic
- Nationality: Dutch
- Movement Dutch Golden Age, Baroque
- Notable works:
Questions about Vermeer and his Art
- Where was Johannes Vermeer born?
- Born in 1632 in Delft, he lived there most, if not all, of his life.
- Delftware or Delft pottery is a general term now used for Dutch tin-glazed earthenware. Most of it is blue and white pottery, and the city of Delft in the Netherlands was the primary center of production.
- What was Vermeer’s faith?
- Vermeer was born and raised Protestant but converted to Catholicism on the occasion of his marriage into a Catholic family.
- What do we know about Vermeer’s parents?
- His father was Reynier Janszoon, an inn-keeper, silk weaver, and art trader, and his mother was Dingenum Balthens.
- What type of painter was Vermeer?
- His long term interest in domestic genre scenes, but his earliest known works, such as ‘Saint Praxedis’ (1655), were history paintings.
- The motif of the woman by a window in a domestic setting, or reading a letter, is a recurring element in Vermeer’s art.
- Of his 36 paintings, 32 feature women in them, and 23 of the 36 feature only women.
- Eleven of Vermeer’s 36 paintings have pearls in them. Pearls were a status symbol, and he painted them three-dimensionally, most famously in the famous “Girl With a Pearl Earring.”
- What do we know about Vermeer’s wife?
- He married Catharina Bolnes, who came from a well-to-do family. She was from Gouda. She was slightly older than Vermeer and very devoted to preserving his work after he passed.
- Did Vermeer have children?
- Vermeer was the father of eleven children, but children do not appear in his paintings, except for the kneeling children with obstructed faces in ‘The Little Street.’
- What are the critical dates in Vermeer’s life?
- Baptized – 1632 in the Nieuwe Kerk
- Married – 1653 to Catharina Bolnes in a clandestine church in Schipluiden
- Admitted – 1653 to the Guild of St. Lucas as “Master”
- Buried – 1675 in the Oude Kerk
- Which art museums have the most Vermeers?
- Twelve of Vermeer’s approximately thirty-five extant paintings are housed within the U.S., mainly at the Metropolitan and Frick Museums of New York City, and at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
- What technology did Vermeer use to help him in his visual effects?
- Vermeer’s works suggest that he used the camera obscura, an optical device that reflects the subject onto the canvas, to achieve his close imitation of visual reality.
- How old was Johannes Vermeer when he died?
Explore the Metropolitan Museum of Art
MET European Paintings Collection
- “Pygmalion and Galatea” by Jean-Léon
- “Saint Jerome as Scholar” by El Greco
- “Portrait of Juan de Pareja” by Diego Velázquez
- “Camille Monet on a Garden Bench” by Claude Monet
- “View of Toledo” by El Greco
- “The Musicians” by Caravaggio
- “The Death of Socrates” by Jacques-Louis David
- “The Harvesters” by Pieter Bruegel the Elder
- “Young Woman Drawing” by Marie-Denise Villers
- “The Grand Canal, Venice” by J. M. W. Turner
- “The Houses of Parliament (Effect of Fog)” by Claude Monet
- “Madame Cézanne in a Red Dress” by Paul Cézanne
- “The Fortune Teller” by Georges de La Tour
- “The Allegory of Faith” by Johannes Vermeer
MET Modern and Contemporary Art Collection
- “Reclining Nude” by Amedeo Modigliani
- “Improvisation 27 (Garden of Love II)” by Wassily Kandinsky
- “Jeanne Hébuterne” by Amedeo Modigliani
- “The Card Players” by Paul Cézanne
- “Bathers” by Paul Cézanne
MET Greek and Roman Art Collection
MET Egyptian Art Collection
MET Asian Art Collection
- Luohan – Yixian Glazed Ceramic Sculpture
- Pillow with Landscape Scenes – Zhang Family Workshop
- Jar with Dragon
MET Ancient Near Eastern Art Collection
- Sumerian Standing Male Worshiper
- Head of a Beardless Royal Attendant – Eunuch
- Human-Headed Winged Bull (Lamassu)
MET American Wing Collection
- “Washington Crossing the Delaware” by Emanuel Leutze
- “Portrait of Madame X” by John Singer Sargent
- “Mother and Child” by Mary Cassatt
- “Fur Traders Descending the Missouri” by George Caleb Bingham
- “The Gulf Stream” by Winslow Homer
- “The Parthenon” by Frederic Edwin Church
- “The Aegean Sea” by Frederic Edwin Church
MET Islamic Art Collection
MET Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas Collection
- Benin Ivory Mask
- African Face Mask – Kpeliye’ e
- Sican Funerary Mask – Peru
- Ceremonial Axe – Papua New Guinea
MET European Sculpture and Decorative Arts Collection
- “Hercules the Archer” by Antoine Bourdelle
- “Orpheus and Eurydice” by Auguste Rodin
- “Perseus with the Head of Medusa” by Antonio Canova
MET Medieval Art Collection
- “The Last Supper” by Ugolino di Nerio
- Plaque with the Journey to Emmaus and Noli Me Tangere
- Doorway from the Church of San Nicolò, San Gemini
MET Drawings and Prints Collection
- Album of Tournaments and Parades in Nuremberg
- “Canvassing for Votes” by William Hogarth
- “Christ and the Woman of Samaria” by Rembrandt
MET Costume Institute Collection
MET Arms and Armor Collection
MET Photograph Collection
MET Musical Instrument Collection
- Masterpieces of The Metropolitan Museum of Art – MET
- The MET Cloisters
- Met Breuer
- Metropolitan Museum of Art
“Tears come from the heart and not from the brain.”
– Leonardo da Vinci
Photo Credit: 1) Johannes Vermeer [Public domain]