Enigma Cipher Machine
The Enigma Cipher Machine was an electro-mechanical rotor message coding device invented by the German engineer at the end of World War I to create secret coded messages.
Early models were used commercially from the 1920s and were adopted by military and government services of several countries.
Several different Enigma models were produced, but the German military models, having a plugboard, were the most complex and challenging to decipher and were used extensively by Nazi Germany before and during World War II.
In 1939, Poland shared with French and British military intelligence representatives their knowledge of German Enigma decryption techniques and equipment.
This information was a foundation for British cryptologists to start understanding how to decrypt messages enciphered on Enigma.
German procedural flaws, operator mistakes, and failure to systematically make changes in encipherment procedures provided clues to cracking the Enigma’s secrets.
Also, the Allied capture of critical German tables and hardware enabled the Allied cryptologists to break the Enigma codes successfully.
Bletchley Park was developed as a cryptanalytic facility. Alan Turing, a Cambridge University mathematician, provided much of the original thinking that led to the design of the cryptanalytical Bombe machines and the eventual breaking of Enigma.
The intelligence gleaned from this source, codenamed “Ultra” by the British, was a substantial aid to the Allied war effort.
An estimated 100,000 Enigma machines were constructed. After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to developing countries.
The secret effort to break the Enigma was not disclosed until the 1970s. Since then, interest in the Enigma machine has grown. Today, Enigmas are on display in museums around the world.
Enigma Cipher Machine
- Title: Enigma Cipher Machine
- Year: 1930s -1945
- Country: Germany
- Museum: International Spy Museum
The Enigma Machine Explained
A Tour of the International Spy Museum
- Scaramanga’s Golden Gun
- Los Alamos, Manhattan Project, S-Site Badge
- Manhattan Project, Service Certificate
- Forged British Bank Note from Operation Bernhard
- Enigma Cipher Machine
- British Special Forces Bobbins
- Sleeve Dagger with Sheath
- British Special Forces Lapel Knife
- Kiss of Death, Lipstick Pistol
- Glove Pistol
How does the ENIGMA MACHINE work
A Tour of Washington, D.C. Museums
- National Gallery of Art
- National Museum of American History
- National Air and Space Museum
- National Museum of African American History and Culture
- National Museum of Natural History
- National Portrait Gallery
- Smithsonian American Art Museum
- The Phillips Collection
- Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
- International Spy Museum
- National Museum of Women in the Arts
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Tour of Military and War Museums and Memorials
- Imperial War Museum, London
- Intrepid, Sea, Air & Space Museum, New York
- Australian War Memorial
- Darwin Military Museum, Australia
- Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Australia
- Changi Museum, Singapore
- War Museum of Thessaloniki, Greece
- Churchill War Rooms, London
- Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira, New Zealand
- Household Cavalry Museum, London
- National Army Museum, London
- MacArthur Museum Brisbane
The Inner Workings of an Enigma Machine
“It is because politics is more difficult than physics.”
Photo Credit: 1)JOM